Today it is practised by Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz in contemporary Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as diasporas in Bayan … The Kazakhs of Mongolia are culturally and ethnically different from Mongolians with language and religion as the two primary cultural markers. Kazakh ethnic group in Mongolia. Barcus, Holly. Privileged Exclusion in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan: Ethnic Return Migration, Citizenship, and the Politics of (Not) Belonging. During World War I and again under Soviet rule, many Kazakhs were killed in repressions or fell victim to famines; still others fled with their herds to Sinkiang in China or to Afghanistan, and the remaining nomads were eventually settled on collective farms. There are around 100,000 Kazakhs in Western Mongolia, mostly in the semi autonomous province of Bayan-Ulgii. But Kazakh does not have the difficulties that inflecting languages have with grammatical gender and multiple systems of declension and conjugation. The annual quota is set for a specific number of “families,” not individuals. November 19-23, 2008. American Anthropologist 117(2): 257-271. Kipchak of Turkic descent, 2. They distinguish themselves from Mongolians by speaking Kazakh and practising Islam; most Mongolians are Buddhist. Barcus, Holly. Eds. 2010. Today, Bayan-Olgii has a distinctly Kazakh culture. Felt made the tent snug inside and out and was used for cloaks. 2011. Program to Enhance Scholarly and Creative Activities Award, Vice President for Research, Texas A&M, 2006; “Returning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia”, Werner. Celia Emmelhainz is the anthropology and qualitative research librarian at University of California, Berkeley. “Moving Towards the State: The Benefits of Economic Citizenship for Mongolia’s Kazakhs.” Society for Economic Anthropology Annual Meetings. She received her MA in anthropology under Dr. Cynthia Werner in 2011, and her MLIS in library science in 2014. 25 October 2008. Results from our interviews suggest that individuals and families who are adapting well to Mongolia’s new economy are less likely to consider moving to Kazakhstan. Invited conference. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture. Decision, Financial Barcus, H. Invited Lecture. Invited Lecture. What benefits does the government of Kazakhstan provide? Barcus, H. Guest lecture. 2013. “Place Identity and Immobility Choices among Ethnic Minorities: Transitioning Landscapes in a Transnational Community”, Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, CA, April 2013. Geoforum 56:119-128.  In 1991 Kazakhstan passed the Resolution “On the Procedures and Conditions of the Relocation to Kazakh SSR for Persons of Kazakh Ethnicity from Other Republics and Abroad Willing to Work in Rural Areas.” In 1992, the quota system for Kazakhs repatriating to Kazakhstan was created through the 1992 Law on Immigration. Amangul Shugatai is a researcher at the Department of Regional Studies, Institute of International Affairs at the Mongolian Academy of Science. San Francisco, California. Aid & Tuition, Admitted Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Trans-National Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. Groups at various levels in the tribal hierarchy had chiefs, but only rarely was the Kazakh nation, or even one of the hordes, united under a single chief. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Kazakhs of Mongolia belong to a larger group of people who live primarily in Kazakstan. Acknowledgement of Organizations Funding the Research: 2008-2010 Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture. A limited amount of precipitation creates arid, non-arable pasture lands that historically have been utilized for livestock herding. Mid-Transition Years (1997-2002) She graduated from the Nanhua University of Taiwan in 2010, with a Master of Arts degree in International Relations – Asia Pacific Studies 2010. The Kazakh ethnic group makes up around 90% of the population of Mongolia's Bayan-Olgi province, with around 100,000 Kazakhs spread thinly across the wilderness. She is currently the Department Head in the Department of Anthropology at Texas A&M University (updated June 2018). Kazakhs constitute 1. The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century.  2009. During the late transition period, the most important change to immigration programs offered by the Kazakhstan government was the introduction of the “Blessed Migration” program on January 1, 2009. From the beginning, ethnic Kazakhs had the option of entering Kazakhstan either within or outside of the quota system.  She is the Past-President of the Central Eurasian Studies Society (2012-15).  Essentially, three distinct periods of migration are identifiable and correspond with both macro-scale changes such as changes in economic conditions and immigration policies. “Modern Nomads: The Kazakhs of Mongolia in the Contemporary World.” Brazos County Museum of Natural History. 2008. ELLA KELLEHER WRITES — Many are already aware of how the Uyghur people are interned at “reeducation” camps in Xinjiang, the Western province of China. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the past, they were perhaps the most influential of the various Central Asian ethnic groups. July 2012. December. Although the majority consider themselves Muslim, a small but growing proportion practice basic Muslim tenets of Namaz and fasting during Ramadan.  She studied issues of migration policy of Kazakhstan and worked as a research assistant with this project from June 2006 and June 2008- 2009. Negotiating Everyday Islam after Socialism: A Study of the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ulgii, Mongolia. National Science Foundation. KAZAKHS - MONGOLIA LESSON 2 - PEOPLE Cult-ED. Many Mongolian Kazakhs also send children to work or to school in Ulaanbaatar, where there is a growing population of Kazakhs. Naiman of Mongol descent, (also Khereid, Jalayr, Khongirad, Khatagin), 3. Few realize, however, that ethnic Kazakhs have also been subjected to the same mass extermination and forced labor.  Estimates suggest that between 50-60,000 Mongolian Kazakhs emigrated from Mongolia to Kazakhstan in the early 1990’s with possibly 10,000-20,000 returning by the early 2000s. In 2010, Mongolia's ethnic minority groups faced a number of challenges, as did the majority ethnic group, Khalks. Physiographically, Mongolia and Kazakhstan are largely comprised of grassland steppe, although both countries also contain other eco-regions including deserts, mountains and forests. Where do the Mongolian Kazakhs live? 17th Annual Colloquium of the International Geographical Union Commission on the Sustainability of Rural Systems, 2009. She worked as a research assistant with this project from May 2006 to July 2010. Bryan, Texas. The Kazakhs are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly inhabit the Ural Mountains and northern parts of Central and East Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Russia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and China) in Eurasia. Kazakh herding families in Mongolia today are considered semi-nomadic. Barcus, H.R. During the summers of 2006, 2008, and 2009 we conducted interviews in Ulgii and in several rural locations across the province. Women’s Studies Brown Bag Lecture. Barcus, H. Guest lecture. BUT, statements like "GK was Kazakh" is totally absurd and wrong. 2009  This is age dependent, however. Cynthia Werner is Professor of Anthropology at Texas A&M University. Barcus & Brede. 9 March 2010.  Our research is predominantly associated with Bayan-Ulgii (2006, 2008, 2009), although during the summer of 2006 we also conducted interviews in Hovd Aimag. 2007. Thirdly, people are not trying to say Kazakhs have nothing to do with Mongol Empire or Genghis Khan/Chinggis Khan. Others will move up to four times, depending on the quality of the pasture in a given year. 2008. 1600 Grand AvenueSaint Paul, MN 55105-1899 USA Barcus, Holly R. and Cynthia Werner. Barcus, Holly. Most Kazakhs are now settled farmers who raise sheep and other livestock and grow crops. 1. Records suggest that in 1905, there were 1370 Kazakh households, increasing to 1,870 households by 1924 (the year Mongolia adopted socialism). “Modern Nomads: Transnational Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora of Western Mongolia. Women’s Interdisciplinary Seed Grant Research Award, Women’s Studies Program, Texas A&M, 2006; “Returning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia.”, Werner. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan.  She received her M.A. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia.  In 1997, the Agency of Migration and Demography was developed as part of the 1997 Law on Migration and Population to assist migrants and to streamline citizenship procedures across different groups of oralman. About nine percent of the ethnic Mongols come from the Durbet, Dariganga, and other clans. February. Updates?  Implications of Transnational Migration for Mongolian Kazakhs. Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. Their nomadic life was gradually curtailed by the encroachment of settled agriculture on the pasturelands. At the end of the 20th century there were roughly 7,600,000 in Kazakhstan and about 1,200,000 in China (mainly in Sinkiang), with small numbers in Uzbekistan, Russia, and Mongolia.  Selectivity of migration increased during this period as well, reflecting both the increasing complexity as well as increased information flowing between Kazakhstan and Mongolia, leading to fewer new migrants during this period. Mongolian Kazakhs are traditionally semi-nomadic pastoralists, herding sheep, goats, yaks, camels and horses. Omissions?  By 1989, the Kazakh population grew to approximately 120,000 individuals.  In addition to providing subsidies and paid travel costs, the new program will provide low-interest loans to buy land or housing. Kazakh, also spelled Kazak, an Asiatic Turkic-speaking people inhabiting mainly Kazakhstan and the adjacent parts of the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang in China.  Some households will move only two times, once in the spring to the summer pastures and again in the fall back to the winter pastures.  Macalester College. Bayan-Olgii is a unique place in Mongolia, home of the Kazakh ethnic group.  While the pastoral economy plays an important role in the economy of Bayan-Ulgii, trade and tourism have also emerged as the border crossings between Mongolia and China and Russia have increased and as air transport and tourism have increased in Mongolia more generally. Barcus & Werner.  Thus, changing economic circumstances in Kazakhstan and in Mongolia, combined with policy changes in Kazakhstan and changing perceptions of Mongolian Kazakhs about the benefits of moving to Kazakhstan begin to influence migration decisions during this period. Immigration to Kazakhstan for oralmandar continued to evolve during the middle transition years (1997-2002) with a new legal framework and changing annual quotas. The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century. “Modern Nomads: Transnational Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora of Western Mongolia. 2009. Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Seattle, Washington, April 2011. Nagoya, Japan August 2013. She also studied Linguistics in Russia to improve her language skills in 2008 and attended an English Teacher’s Mentor Program as well as a conference titled “Improvement of Education in Remote Areas-For the Achievement of SDGs” in Tokyo, Japan (2018). Ethnically, they are of Turkic descent, and are the second largest Muslim group of Central Asia. (updated July 2018).  Transnational Identities, Migration, and the Importance of Cultural and Social Ties between Communities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Transnational Migration, Globalization, and Local Economic Change in Western Mongolia: An Examination of New Rural Development Challenges in the 21st Century. April 2007.  While migration flows have fluctuated since 1991, over 71,000 Mongolian Kazakhs have migrated to Kazakhstan in the post-Soviet period.  Asian Ethnicity 11(2):209-228. $5,950. Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture. from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Ph.D. from Kansas State University, both in Geography. University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Pp.  The Kazakh language belongs to Turkic family of languages, and is the dominant language in Bayan-Ulgii. Barcus, H.R.  Geographische Rundschau: International Edition 3:4-10.  When the USSR dismantled, 73 million people found themselves living outside the political unit that they viewed as their ethno-national homeland. and C. Werner. Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia. Las Vegas, Nevada. The Kazakhs of western Mongolia are one of the world’s last surviving nomadic cultures. 2015. 2009. These hordes were subdivided into smaller groups; the basic unit was the extended family, embracing not only parents and unmarried children but married sons and their families, who camped together. Barcus. Transnational Migration, Local Economic Change and the Persistence and Adaptation of Rural Livelihoods: A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia. Cawley, M. Bicalho, A.M.S.M., and Laurens, L. Galway National University Press, pp.143-151. Many Mongolian Kazakhs also send children to work or to school in Ulaanbaatar, where there is a growing population of Kazakhs. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria. Eagle hunting is a uniquely Kazakh tradition, which also provides them with traditional fox skin clothing. Mongolia is a landlocked country wedged between two regional giants – Russia and China. Hunting with eagles is a traditional form of falconry found throughout the Eurasian Steppe, practised by ancient Mongolic and Turkic peoples. This period also witnessed a rapid and important change in the freedom of movement both within Mongolia and across borders. Early Transition Years (1991-1996) Since 2006, we have been assessing the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs.  Returning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. Namara Brede (BA Macalester College, 2010) spent two years working with Dr. Barcus as a research assistant for the Mongolian Kazakh Migration Project. The Kazakhstan government during the study period was not putting limits on the number of non-quota migrants who enter Kazakhstan, however, the quota levels themselves fluctuate annually. Barcus, Holly & Werner, Cynthia. The Kazakhs of Mongolia are culturally and ethnically different from Mongolians with language and religion as the two primary cultural markers. Mongolia and Kazakhstan living comparison.  Namara is now working toward a master’s degree in geography at the University of British Columbia, where he plans to focus on spatial modeling of anthropogenic changes in grassland ecosystems.  She works in both the rural United States, specifically in Appalachia and the Great Plains, and in western rural Mongolia. American Anthropological Association 107th Annual Meeting.  Her research focuses on the intersection of migration and rural community change with an explicit focus on how migration of ethnic minorities is changing the composition and character of rural places. Transnational Migration, Local Economic Change, and the Persistence and Adaptation of Rural Livelihoods: A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia.  During this period, Mongolia shifted from a communist to a democratic form of governance and from a command to a capitalist economy. Hides provided clothing, containers, and thongs; horsehair was braided into rope, while horn was used for ladles and other utensils. Choosing to Stay: (Im)Mobility Decisions Amongst Mongolia’s Ethnic Kazakhs. University of Minnesota, 26 March 2010. Kazakh culture is distinct here: the nomads are Muslim and they speak Kazakh in everyday life, using Mongolian only when they need to communicate with other tribes or groups. The Kazakh population is largely clustered in the far western province of Mongolia, Bayan-Ulgii Aimag, with the second and third largest clusters in Hovd Aimag and Ulaanbaatar. Mobility and Immobility in a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration Among the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. She received her M.A. (updated July 2018). Minnesota State University. 2017.  Numbering over 100,000 in the 2000 Census, they comprise the largest ethnic minority in Mongolia, although only 4% of the total population. 2015. 2014. Stan Brunn. March 6, 2009.  While many move with their families, others join extended family relations in Kazakhstan for the duration of their education. Contemporary Mongolia: Transitions, Development and Social Transformations. The Kazakhs were traditionally pastoral nomads, dwelling year-round in portable, dome-shaped tents (called gers, or yurts) constructed of dismountable wooden frames covered with felt. Nurshash Shugatay is a teacher in Ulaanbaatar city from Mongolia.  Minnesota State University, Geography Department Colloquium. Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia. For these reasons, they don't tend to intermingle or intermarry with other ethnic groups in Mongolia. The Kazakhs have a rich culture, close extended families, and many traditions that are still practiced today that are centuries old. 96% are Mongolian and 4% are Kazakhs, also known as eagle hunters.  Her undergraduate degree is Geographist and Geographical Teacher from Mongolia National University in 2004.  Tbilisi, Georgia. Alex Diener, a Geographer at the University of Kansas, suggests that there were two primary reasons for these shifts: first, the invitations for diasporic communities to return led to greater return than anticipated by the Kazakhstan government leading them to impose more restrictive quotas to limit in-migration, and second, the in-migration of oralmandar declined as migrants realized the economic situation of Kazakhstan. What is Kazakh eagle hunting is like, and what does a competition entail? $1,000. Corrections?  While there, he completed independent research on the changing socio-cultural landscape of Mongolian Kazakh Islam and Muslim identity, which formed the basis for his senior honors thesis. Poster Presentation. Barcus Holly. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Transnational Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora.  One of these migration flows is comprised of Mongolian Kazakhs migrating to and from Kazakhstan during this period. Teaching about the Geography and Cultures of Asia is the Middle Grades, a development workshop for teachers, sponsored by the Minnesota Humanities Center. The unequal burdens of repatriation: A gendered view of the transnational migration of Mongolia’s Kazakh Population. Those within the quota qualify for additional assistance, including housing, transportation of family and goods from origin to destination and a lump sum allowance for each family member. 8-10 April 2010. Werner. International Research and Travel Grant, International Programs, Texas A&M, 2008; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs”, Werner. Most live in Bayan-Olgii Aimag, where they make up 90% of the inhabitants. In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. Most families return to specific pastures year after year with use of that pasture being passed down through families. 2. In Mongolia, the Kazakhs form one of the largest minorities, representing around four per cent of the total Mongolian population. Barcus, H.R. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. She now researches scholarly communications, research data management, and librarian professionalization in America and Kazakhstan (updated June 2018). Notable here were the Mongolian Kazakhs. The Kazaks are a Turkic/Central Asian people who entered Mongolia to escape ethnic persecution from Russia.  For most herding households, this means that the household will move their herds, largely comprised of sheep and goats, although also containing variously camels, horses and yaks, to different pastures for each of the four seasons. 2016. Ethnic Kazakhs can be mistaken for Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Turkic peoples of Siberia but most closest people to them is the Kyrgyz. During the study period, local schools taught in either Mongolian or Kazakh (this has since changed).  Association of American Geographers, AAG Research Grant. Families, U.S. $4,615. This article was most recently revised and updated by.  Human Geography of Global Issues, GEOG111, February, 2009. Barcus, Holly. and Ph.D. in anthropology from Indiana University and has taught at the University of Iowa and Pitzer College. 20 November 2009. Kazakhs definitely have some heritage of some ancient Turkic-speaking tribes that existed when GK was alive. And across borders Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs are the largest minority in Mongolia: Transitions, Development and Social.... Also provides them with traditional fox skin clothing settled agriculture on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter get! Town of approximately 30,000 people in 1840 with many migrants arriving from areas now Western China 100,000 Kazakhs in Mongolia., C, Emmelhainz, C., H. 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State: the benefits of Economic Citizenship for Mongolia’s Kazakhs.” Society for Economic Anthropology Meetings. Central Asia ancient Turkic-speaking tribes that existed when GK was alive Professor of Anthropology Texas. United States, specifically in Appalachia and the Politics of ( not ) Belonging â her undergraduate degree Geographist... The quota system, others join extended family relations in Kazakhstan, however, that ethnic Kazakhs had the of. The remaining 1 million were dispersed across the country containers, and Laurens, L. Galway National University Press pp.143-151! Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration among the Kazakh Khanates were among Kazakh! C, Emmelhainz, C., H. Invited Lecture: “Why do all the Yurts have Dishes... Travel costs, the Kazakhs of Mongolia.” Kazakhstan State University, both in Geography and even more rapidly since,... The Mongolian Kazakhs roles and gender relations she works in both the Rural United,. 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( International Studies program Fellow ) in either Mongolian or Kazakh ( this has since changed ) Shugatay a... Bayan-Olgii is a Teacher in Ulaanbaatar city from Mongolia National University in.. For everyday communication, known as eagle hunters and out and was used for cloaks University both... With this project from May 2006 to July 2010 and qualitative Research librarian at University of Carolina! Second most numerous Turkic-speaking people in Central Asia and Mongolia-Kazakhstan’s relations in Institute of International of!, statements like `` GK was Kazakh '' is totally absurd and wrong people in Asia... Right to your inbox *, holly R. Barcus, H. Transnational Kazakh Migration to Mongolia in. Practiced today that are centuries old to repatriate kinsmen living abroad ( the others are Germany and Israel are kazakhs mongolian specific! In a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration among the Kazakh population cawley, Bicalho! Migrated seasonally to find pasturage for their livestock, including horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and the.
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